OSLI Retina

February 2017

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106 Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina | Healio.com/OSLIRetina ■ C L I N I C A L S C I E N C E ■ Relationships Between Spatial Contrast Sensitivity and Parafoveal Cone Density in Normal Subjects and Patients With Retinal Degeneration Masakazu Hirota, MSc; Takeshi Morimoto, MD, PhD; Hiroyuki Kanda, PhD; Tibor Karl Lohmann, MD; Suguru Miyagawa, ME; Takao Endo, MD; Tomomitsu Miyoshi, PhD; Takashi Fujikado, MD, PhD BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spatial contrast sensitivity (CS) and parafoveal cone density (PCD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy individu- als (mean age: 26.1 years ± 4.5 years) and nine pa- tients with hereditary retinal degeneration (mean age: 31.6 years ± 13.4 years) without media opaci- ties were studied. The CS was measured by CSV- 1000 (VectorVision, Greenville, OH). The cone mosaic was photographed with an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) with a 1° × 1° field of view centered on the fovea. The PCD was calculated in an annular area with radii of 0.38° and 0.43°. The CS was converted to the loga- rithm (logCS), and the area under the logCS func- tion (AULCSF) was determined. RESULTS: The AULCSF was significantly and positively correlated with the PCD in the control (R 2 = 0.522; P = .003) and retinal degeneration (R 2 = 0.514; P = .03) groups. CONCLUSION: PCD can predict the spatial contrast sensitivity in normal subjects or patients with reti- nal degeneration without media opacities. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:106-113.] INTRODUCTION Spatial contrast sensitivity of an optical system is its ability to detect differences in the luminances of an object of different spatial frequencies and the background. 1,2 In human eyes, the spatial contrast sensitivity can be affected by opacities of the optic media and also by the low- and high-order optical aberrations of the ocular media or axial length. 3-5 Retinal degeneration has been shown to reduce the spatial contrast sensitivity, and the reduction can be detected even in cases in which the visual acuity is less affected. 6-10 These findings suggest that the spa- tial contrast sensitivity should be useful in detecting early changes in the retinal function and in tracking the progression of retinal degeneration in patients. However, the values of the spatial contrast sensitiv- ity can vary because they are usually obtained by psychophysical tests. 11 Therefore, a parameter is needed to validate the spatial contrast sensitivity and can be obtained objectively to assess the func- tional changes of eyes with retinal diseases. Studies on human eyes have shown that the spa- tial contrast sensitivity is highest at the fovea and decreases with increasing distance from the fovea. 12 This is similar to the relationship between the visual acuity and eccentricity determined psychophysical- ly. 12 The results of earlier studies showed that the length of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone line, a highly reflective line observed in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images, in the central macula From the Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan (MH, TM, HK, TKL, SM, TF); the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany (TKL); the Fundamental Technology Sec, R&D Department, Topcon Corpora- tion, Itabashi, Tokyo (SM); the Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan (TE); and the Department of Integrative Physiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan (TM). Originally submitted August 2, 2016. Revision received October 18, 2016. Accepted for publication November 2, 2016. Supported by the Translational Research Network Program from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan; Asian CORE Pro- gram Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS); JSPS Core-to-Core Program, A, Advanced Research Networks; KAKENHI (25293354); The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Japan (MEXT) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research; and Advanced Research and Development Programs for Medical Innovation, Japan (J160705035). Mr. Miyagawa is employed by Topcon Corporation. The remaining authors report no relevant financial disclosures. Address correspondence to Takahashi Fujikado, MD, PhD, Department of Applied Visual Science, Room G4, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, Japan; email: fujikado@ophthal.med.osaka-u.ac.jp. doi: 10.3928/23258160-20170130-03

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