OSLI Retina

July 2020

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406 Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina | Healio.com/OSLIRetina to monitor and treat for infection and to ensure ma- ture vascularization has occurred. Laser should be subsequently performed if vascularization has not occurred by the expected time course. Furthermore, the use of fluorescein angiograms following injec- tions should be considered, given the prevalence of avascularity following treatment. With the imple- mentation of SAFER-ROP, we hope to minimize the complications that can occur with intravitreal injec- tion for ROP. REFERENCES 1. Kong L, Fry M, Al-Samarraie M, Gilbert C, Steinkuller PG. An up- date on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of child- hood blindness worldwide. J AAPOS. 2012;16(6):501-507. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2012.09.004 PMID:23237744 2. Ahmad KA, Frey CS, Fierro MA, Kenton AB, Placencia FX. Two- Year Neurodevelopmental Outcome of an Infant Born at 21 Weeks' 4 Days' Gestation. Pediatrics. 2017;140(6):e20170103. Epub 2017 Nov 2. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-0103 PMID: 29097614 3. Stahl A, Lepore D, Fielder A, et al. Ranibizumab versus laser therapy for the treatment of very low birthweight infants with retinopathy of prematurity (RAINBOW): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2019;394(10208):1551-1559. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(19)31344-3 PMID:31522845 4. Avery RL, Bakri SJ, Blumenkranz MS, et al. Intravitreal injection technique and monitoring: updated guidelines of an expert panel. Ret- ina. 2014;34(suppl 12):S1-S18. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.000000 0000000399 PMID:25489719 5. The Royal College of Ophthalmologists. Guidelines for Intravitreal Injections Procedure. 2009. Available at: https://www.rcophth.ac.uk/ wp-content/uploads/2015/01/2009-SCI-012_Guidelines_for_Intra- vitreal_Injections_Procedure_1.pdf. Accessed Nov 13, 2018. 6. Mintz-Hittner HA, Kennedy KA, Chuang AZ; BEAT-ROP Coopera- tive Group. Efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab for stage 3+ retinopa- thy of prematurity. N Engl J Med. 2011;364(7):603-615. https://doi. org/10.1056/NEJMoa1007374 PMID:21323540 7. Wright LM, Vrcek IM, Scribbick FW III, Chang EY, Harper CA III. Technique for Infant Intravitreal Injection in Treatment of Reti- nopathy of Prematurity. Retina. 2017;37(11):2188-2190. https://doi. org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000001561 PMID:28196051 8. Cernichiaro- Espinosa LA, Harper CA 3rd, Read SP, et al. Report of safety of the use of a short 32g needle for intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for retinopathy of prematurity: a multicenter study. Retina. 2018;38(6):1251-1255. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.00000000000 02172 PMID:29689029 9. Wright LM, Harper CA III, Chang EY. Management of Infantile and Childhood Retinopathies: Optimized Pediatric Pars Plana Vitrec- tomy Sclerotomy Nomogram. Ophthalmol Retina. 2018;2(12):1227- 1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oret.2018.06.008 PMID:31047195 10. Harper CA III, Wright LM, Young RC, Read SP, Chang EY. Fluo- rescein Antiographic Evaluation of Peripheral Retinal Vasculature After Primary Intravitreal Ranibizumab for Retinopathy of Prematu- rity. Retina. 2019;39(4):700-705. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000 000000001996 PMID:29300248 11. Day S, Rainey AM, Harper CA III. Incomplete Retinal Vascular- ization After Ranibizumab Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematuri- ty. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48(1):75-78. https:// doi.org/10.3928/23258160-20161219-11 PMID:28060398 12. Lepore D, Quinn GE, Molle F, et al. Follow-up to Age 4 Years of Treat- ment of Type 1 Retinopathy of Prematurity Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection versus Laser: Fluorescein Angiographic Findings. Oph- thalmology. 2018;125(2):218-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oph- tha.2017.08.005 PMID:28867130 13. Isaac M, Tehrani N, Mireskandari K. Involution Patterns of Retinopa- thy of Prematurity After Treatment With Intravitreal Bevacizumab: Implications for Follow-Up. Eye (Lond). 2016;30(3):333-341. https:// doi.org/10.1038/eye.2015.289 PMID: 26869159 14. Yonekawa Y, Wu WC, Nitulescu CE, et al. Progressive Retinal De- tachment in Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated with Intravitreal Bevacizumab or Ranibizumab. Retina. 2018;38(6):1079- 1083. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000001685 PMID:284 71890 15. Wang J, Xiang D. Early clinical characteristics of bacterial endophthal- mitis in retinopathy of prematurity after intravitreal bevacizumab in- jection: A case report. Exp Ther Med. 2017;13(6):3563-3566. https:// doi.org/10.3892/etm.2017.4406 PMID:28588680 16. Lad EM, Hernandez-Boussard T, Morton JM, Moshfeghi DM. In- cidence of retinopathy of prematurity in the United States: 1997 through 2005. Am J Ophthalmol. 2009;148(3):451-458. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ajo.2009.04.018 PMID:19541285 17. Speaker MG, Menikoff JA. Prophylaxis of endophthalmitis with topical povidone-iodine. Ophthalmology. 1991;98(12):1769-1775. https:// doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(91)32052-9 PMID:1775308 18. Urrea M, Iriondo M, Thio M, et al. A prospective incidence study of nosocomial infections in a neonatal care unit. Am J Infect Control. 2003;31(8):505-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196- 6553(03)00077-4 PMID:14647114 19. Dailey WA, Gryc W, Garg PG, Drenser KA. Frizzled-4 Variations Associated with Retinopathy and Intrauterine Growth Retardation: A Potential Marker for Prematurity and Retinopathy. Ophthal- mology. 2015;122(9):1917-1923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oph- tha.2015.05.036 PMID:26119001

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