OSLI Retina

June 2020

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June 2020 · Vol. 51, No. 6 319 Practical Retina 110. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.1961.01840020097017 PMID:13699560 3. Worst JGF. The bursa intravitrealis premacularis: New develop- ments in ophthalmology. In: Deutman AF, ed. New Developments in Ophthalmology Nijmegen 16–18 October 1975. Springer, Dordrecht; 1976:275-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1569-1_31 4. Jongebloed WL, Worst JFG. The cisternal anatomy of the vitre- ous body. Doc Ophthalmol. 1987;67(1-2):183-196. https://doi. org/10.1007/BF00142712 PMID:3428097 5. Eisner G. Clinical anatomy of the vitreous. In: Duane TD, Jaeger EA, eds. Biomedical Foundations of Ophthalmology. Vol 1. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co; 1990:chap 16. 6. Eisner G. Biomicroscopy of the peripheral fundus. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1979. 7. Eisner G. Clinical anatomy of the vitreous. In: Jacobiec F, ed. Ocular Anatomy, Embryology, and Teratology. Philadelphia, PA: Harpe & Row Publishers; 1982:391-424. 8. Kishi S, Shimizu K. Posterior precortical vitreous pocket. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108(7):979-982. https://doi.org/10.1001/ar- chopht.1990.01070090081044 PMID:2369358 9. Fine HF, Spaide RF. Visualization of the posterior precorti- cal vitreous pocket in vivo with triamcinolone. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124(11):1663. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.124.11.1663 PMID:17102022 10. Itakura H, Kishi S, Li D, Akiyama H. Observation of posterior pre- cortical vitreous pocket using swept-source optical coherence tomog- raphy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54(5):3102-3107. https://doi. org/10.1167/iovs.13-11769 PMID:23599325 11. Spaide RF. Visualization of the posterior vitreous with dynamic fo- cusing and windowed averaging swept source optical coherence to- mography. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014;158(6):1267-1274. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ajo.2014.08.035 PMID:25174895 12. Pang CE, Freund KB, Engelbert M. Enhanced vitreous imaging technique with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for evaluation of posterior vitreous detachment. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(9):1148-1150. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthal- mol.2014.1037 PMID:25010436 13. Schaal KB, Pang CE, Pozzoni MC, Engelbert M. The premacular bursa's shape revealed in vivo by swept-source optical coherence to- mography. Ophthalmology. 2014;121(5):1020-1028. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2013.11.030 PMID:24507856 14. Engelbert M. A new understanding of vitreous structure. Rev Oph- thalmol. 2016;01:60-64. 15. Chen KC, Jung JJ, Engelbert M. Giant premacular bursa: a novel finding of the posterior vitreous in two patients with Stickler syn- drome type 1 revealed by swept-source optical coherence tomography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016;254(3):591-593. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00417-015-3125-9 PMID:26245341 16. Pang CE, Schaal KB, Engelbert M. Association of prevascular vitreous fissures and cisterns with vitreous degeneration as assessed by swept source optical coherence tomography. Retina. 2015;35(9):1875-1882. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000000540 PMID:25874366 17. Gal-Or O, Ghadiali Q, Dolz-Marco R, Engelbert M. In vivo imaging of the fibrillar architecture of the posterior vitreous and its relationship to the premacular bursa, Cloquet's canal, prevascular vitreous fissures, and cisterns. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2019;257(4):709-714. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-018-04221-x PMID:30617583 18. Kishi S. Diagnostic pearls in the management of vitreomacu- lar disorders. Semin Ophthalmol. 1998;13(1):2-9. https://doi. org/10.3109/08820539809066077 PMID:9567007 19. Ghadiali Q, Zahid S, Dolz-Marco R, Tan A, Engelbert M. An Assess- ment of Vitreous Degeneration in Eyes with Vitreomacular Traction and Macular Holes. J Ophthalmol. 2017;2017:6834692. https://doi. org/10.1155/2017/6834692 PMID:28133544 20. Chen KC, Jung JJ, Engelbert M. Swept source optical coherence to- mography of the posterior vitreous after pars plana vitrectomy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015;253(11):2041-2043. https://doi. org/10.1007/s00417-015-3018-y PMID:25904299 21. Sebag J. Diabetic vitreopathy. Ophthalmology. 1996;103(2):205-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(96)30716-1 PMID:8594502 22. Stitt AW, Moore JE, Sharkey JA, et al. Advanced glycation end products in vitreous: structural and functional implications for dia- betic vitreopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39(13):2517-2523. PMID:9856760 23. Vaz-Pereira S, Dansingani KK, Chen KC, Cooney MJ, Klancnik JM Jr, Engelbert M. Tomographic relationships between retinal neovas- cularization and the posterior vitreous in proliferative diabetic reti- nopathy. Retina. 2017;37(7):1287-1296. https://doi.org/10.1097/ IAE.0000000000001336 PMID:27749694 24. Kishi S, Shimizu K. Clinical manifestations of posterior precorti- cal vitreous pocket in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Ophthal- mology. 1993;100(2):225-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161- 6420(93)31666-0 PMID:8437831 25. Kishi S. Vitreous anatomy and the vitreomacular correlation. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2016;60(4):239-273. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10384- 016-0447-z PMID:27165709 26. Balaratnasingam C, Vaz-Pereira S, Engelbert M. Intrabursal and Subhyaloid Hemorrhages in Valsalva Retinopathy. Retina. 2017;37(1):e1-e3. https://doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000001149 PMID:28005722 Gerardo Ledesma-Gil, MD, can be reached at Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, 950 3rd Ave., 3rd floor, New York, NY 10022; email: gerardo.ledesma.md@gmail.com. Pedro Fernández-Avellaneda, MD, can be reached at Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, 950 3rd Ave., 3rd floor, New York, NY 10022; email: pedro.fdezavellaneda@gmail.com. Talia R. Kaden, MD, can be reached at Department of Ophthalmology, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, New York; email: talia. kaden@gmail.com. Howard F. Fine, MD, MHSc, can be reached at can be reached at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; New Jersey Retina, 10 Plum Street, Suite 600, New Brunswick, NJ 08901; email: hfine@njretina.com. Michael Engelbert MD, PhD, can be reached at Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New York, 950 3rd Ave., 3rd floor, New York, NY 10022; email: michael.engelbert@gmail.com. Disclosures: Dr. Engelbert is a consultant for Genentech, Bayer, Allergan, and Alimera Sciences. Dr. Fine is a consultant and/or speaker for Alimera, Allergan, Genentech, Regeneron, and Spark Therapeutics and has equity/ patent interests in Auris Surgical Robotics. The remaining authors report no relevant financial disclosures.

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